Detect Neurodegenerative diseases and Cancer
Among all the significant function cell performs, synthesis of new protein is an important function. Further, cell helps in folding of protein chains. Allocating the protein chains to their precise location is also a part of a cell activities. The set of protein chain is call proteome. Folding of the proteins in the cell reflect the health of a cell.
Usually, the stressed cell result in an unbalanced protein synthesis and folding-correction mechanism. Misfolded proteins get stuck and result in enhanced degradation. The inactive proteins clumps and lead to formation of granules. Further, the granules precipitate in the cytoplasm. These precipitated granules become the root of cancer and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Two-Modal Fluorogenic Probe Checks Pattern of Folding and Unfolding of Protein Chains
Apparently, one of the main reasons behind formation of protein clumps is the polarity- the electronic distribution in a particular environment. Hence, a team of Australian Scientists have invented a molecular probe. The probe is two-modal and fluorogenic in nature. It helps monitor minute details of protein aggregation. The probe helps in sensing the proteome state by detecting the polarity of the protein environment.
The probe comprises of fluoresce signal which signifies unfolding of the protein. The chameleon-like color shift helps in mapping the cellular regions of extra misfolding.
In one mode, the probe checks for the misfolded proteins. The misfolded proteins exhibits the cysteine residues over the surface. On the other hand, the correctly folded proteins, usually remain stabilized by bridges formed from amino acid cysteine. These amino acid cysteine bridge remain deeply buried.
The fluorescence is switched on when the probe attaches to cysteine exhibited by a misfolded protein chain. On the other hand, the probe checks for the polarity. The polar environment is indicative of unbalanced electronic distribution. Moreover, the polarity can be measure by the formula of dielectric constant. To measure the electronic distribution, the researchers have attached a “push-pull” chemical group in the fluorogenic probe. The fluorogenic probe, also referred to as NTPAN-MI emits fluorescence signal with a change in color. The “chameleon-like” shift in color is indicative of change in the polarity.