Mechanism behind Molecules Forming DNA Loops

According to medical science, proteins are responsible for DNA compact folding. And these proteins are available in functional form in chromosomes. Researchers at Rice’s Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) are trying to explore the dynamics of such proteins.

Further, researchers have a found a key protein, known as “coiled coils”. They bread around each other as they form larger loops in DNA. The writhing structure is similar to that of the snakes. The loop formation bring the sites of DNA together. Furthermore, these sites are responsible for regulation of the genetic messages.

Loops and respective functions are becoming familiar for researchers. On the other hand, condensin and cohesin proteins need to be understood better. These proteins are the reasons that DNA wrangle into shape.

The physicists of the Rice team believe that structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) may be undertaking novel mechanism to manage the DNA actively. Later, they came to a conclusion by observing ring-shaped lassos. The lassos consists of two protein coils, each of 35-nanometer. Further, the protein coils terminate on a “head unit” pair. It bind to DNA coils. The other pain end in “hinges”, which are open and close just to entrap the strands. As per the result of lab’s simulations, coiled coils are limp lariats.

Twisting Actions May Explain Chromosome Dynamics

In the near future, scientists would will try to test two strand of DNA at a time. The experiment will aid to a realistic representation to check if the twisting action is for real. The effort will add valuable content to the existing theories of protein folding. Also, this will give detailed explanation chromosome dynamics. The researchers claim the research to be one of the main goals of the CTBS’s future work.

Molecules and its formation in loops in DNA comprises a huge part of several projects going on in chromosomes. Considering number of diseases arising from chromosome disorganization, researchers want to have a better knowledge regarding formation of chromosome. This will help in a new treatment approach.

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