Drilling Jars are hydro-mechanical devices used in downhole (oil & gas reservoir) applications. They have the ability to deliver an impact load on other components. Drilling jars are downhole tools used to impart heavy blow (impact load) to the downhole assembly. This is especially done to remove a component stuck downhole. Mechanical and hydraulic drilling jars are the primary types of drilling jars. In terms of design, these types of jars are different; however, based on operation, they are similar.
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A drilling jar is used to create an impact and impulse force to free a stuck drill string. This is achieved by the conversion of strain energy into kinetic energy, which helps accelerates the hammer to collide with the anvil to create a blow. The kinetic energy is stored in drill-string and quickly released by the jar when it fires. The principle is similar to the use of a hammer. Kinetic energy gets stored in the hammer as it is swung, and immediately released on to the nail and board upon impact. Drilling jars are designed to strike up, down, or both. In the case of jarring up above a stuck bottom-hole assembly, the drill operation operator slowly pulls up on the drill-string, but the bottom hole assembly (BHA) does not move.
Drilling jar operation is based on the stress wave theory. The energy for jarring comes from the spring effect of the drill string (either in stressed/compressed position). Energy from the impact load is transmitted by stress waves that travel at the speed of sound in the metal. Drilling jars are also known as intensifiers. They provide reliable performance in vertical, low-angle, directional, horizontal, and extended-reach applications. Drilling jars are made up of high tensile and torsional strength materials, hydraulic delay metering systems, and mandrel latches (mechanical). These are capable of making an impact when the drill-string gets stuck downhole.
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Key players operating in the global drilling jars market include Schlumberger Ltd., National Oilwell Varco, Odfjell Well Services, TASMAN, and Weatherford.